Bed Bugs: 7 Signs You Might Have an Infestation

Have you been waking up with mysterious bites on your body? Noticed tiny blood stains on your sheets? Well, it might be time to address the dreaded possibility: bed bugs. These sneaky little pests have a knack for leaving their mark without you even knowing they’re there! But fret not, we’ve got you covered. In this blog post, we’ll delve into the seven telltale signs that indicate a potential bed bug infestation in your home. So grab a cup of coffee (or bottle of anti- itch), and let’s embark on this informative journey together as we decode the secret language of these unwelcome lodgers!

Introduction to Bed Bugs

Bed bugs are small, parasitic insects that feed on the blood of humans and animals. They are flat in shape, reddish-brown in colour and about the size of an apple seed (approximately 5-7mm long). These pests have been a nuisance to humans for centuries, with reports of infestations dating back as early as ancient Greece.

Bed bugs usually hide during the day and come out at night to feed when their hosts are asleep. This behaviour makes them difficult to detect until a significant infestation has occurred. They are commonly found in places where people spend at least 15 minutes per day, such as living rooms, bedrooms, office space, dining table,, hotel rooms, dormitories and even public transportation. That’s right, bed bugs are not only found on beds!

In recent years, bed bugs have become a major concern worldwide due to their growing resistance to common insecticides and their ability to spread rapidly through travel and movement of infested items. It is important for individuals to be aware of the signs of a bed bug infestation in order to effectively prevent or control it.

Signs of a Bed Bug Infestation

  1. Bites on Your Skin. The most common sign of a bed bug infestation is waking up with itchy red bites on your skin. Bed bugs usually feed at night while their victims are asleep, so if you wake up with unexplained bites or rashes on your arms, legs, neck, or face, it could be a sign that these pests are present in your home.
  2. Rusty or Dark Spots on Your Sheets. While feeding, bed bugs leave behind rusty-coloured droppings which can often be found on sheets and mattresses. They can also leave dark spots from their excrement leading to black or brown stains on your bedding.
  3. Presence of Bed Bug Shells. As they grow into adults and shed their skins multiple times throughout their lifespan, the discarded exoskeletons of bed bugs can be found near hiding spots such as cracks in furniture or bedding.
  4. Visible Signs of Exoskeletons. One of the tell-tale signs of a bed bug infestation is finding exoskeletons (or shells) around your mattress
  5. Bites and Itching. One of the most common signs of a bed bug infestation is bites and itching on your skin. Bed bugs are nocturnal insects that feed on human blood, leaving behind red, itchy bite marks in their wake. These bites can be easily mistaken for other insect bites or even skin irritations, making them difficult to diagnose as bed bug bites.

Symptoms: The symptoms of bed bug bites usually show up a few hours after being bitten and may include red, swollen bumps on the skin that are often in a straight line or grouped together in a cluster. The bites can also cause intense itching and burning sensations, which can lead to scratching and further irritation.

Location: Bed bug bites tend to appear on areas of exposed skin such as arms, legs, neck, and face. This is because bed bugs are attracted to body heat and carbon dioxide emitted from our breath while we sleep. However, they can also bite through clothing if necessary.

Timing: Another characteristic of bed bug bites is their timing. As mentioned earlier, these pests are mostly active at night when people are asleep, hence the term “nighttime feeder.” This means that most people tend to notice the presence of bed bugs only after waking up with fresh bite marks.

2. Blood Stains on Sheets

  1. What are blood stains on sheets? Blood stains on sheets are one of the most common signs of a bed bug infestation. These stains are caused by the bed bugs themselves, as they feed on human blood and leave behind small droplets or smears of blood on the surface they were feeding on. These stains may range in colour from light brown to dark red, depending on how long ago the bite occurred.
  2. How do bed bugs leave blood stains?

Bed bugs typically feed at night when their hosts are asleep, making it difficult for them to be noticed during their feeding process. As they feed, they inject their saliva into the skin which acts as an anticoagulant to prevent the host’s blood from clotting while they continue to feed. This results in tiny spots of blood being left behind as they move around.

3. Fecal Spots on Mattress

Fecal spots are small black or brown dots that can be found on your sheets, pillowcases, and even on the surface of your mattress. They are typically smaller than the tip of a pencil but can also appear as larger stains if several bugs have fed in one location.

These spots are not actually feces, but rather droppings left behind by bed bugs after they have digested blood from their host. The composition of these droppings will vary depending on what the bed bug has fed on, but they often consist of undigested blood from their previous meal.

One way to identify whether or not these spots are from bed bugs is by performing a simple test. Simply dampen a white cloth with some water and gently rub it over the suspected spot. If it smears like blood, then it is most likely a sign of bed bug fecal matter.

4. Small White Eggs

Small white eggs are one of the tell-tale signs of a bed bug infestation. These tiny, translucent eggs are usually about 1mm in size and can be easily overlooked by the untrained eye. They are often clustered together in groups and may appear as small bumps or specks on surfaces such as bedding, furniture, or along baseboards.

Bed bugs prefer to lay their eggs in dark, sheltered areas close to where they feed at night. This could include seams of mattresses, under box springs, behind headboards, inside electrical outlets or behind picture frames. Any spot that provides easy access to human hosts is likely to have bed bug eggs.

A single female bed bug is capable of laying anywhere from 1 to 7 eggs per day and up to 500 during her lifetime (usually 6-12 months). This rapid rate of reproduction is what makes it so challenging to get rid of these pests once they infest your home.

These eggs tend to hatch within 7-10 days and will be able to reproduce in 5-7 weeks. Identifying Bed Bugs

Identifying Bed Bugs

Bed bugs are small, reddish-brown insects that feed on the blood of humans and animals. They are commonly found in beds, furniture, and other areas where people spend a lot of time resting or sleeping. If you suspect that you have a bed bug infestation in your home, it is important to confirm their presence through proper identification.

Here are some key steps to follow when identifying bed bugs:

  1. Examine bite marks: Bed bugs typically feed on exposed skin while people sleep, leaving behind small red welts or bites on the skin. These bites may be clustered or appear in a line and can cause itching and discomfort. However, not everyone reacts to bed bug bites in the same way, so relying solely on bites as evidence of an infestation may not be accurate.
  2. Look for physical signs: Another indicator of a possible bed bug infestation is finding physical signs such as shed skins or fecal stains. Bed bugs shed their outer skins as they grow, leaving behind tiny translucent shells which can be found near their hiding spots. Additionally, they also leave dark brown or black fecal stains on bedding or other surfaces where they rest.
  3. Inspect potential hiding spots: Carefully inspect all areas where bed bugs are likely to hide such as mattress seams, headboards, box springs, and furniture joints. These insects prefer dark crevices where they can easily access their hosts while remaining hidden during the day.

Appearance and Size

Bed bugs are small, reddish-brown insects that are typically 4-5mm in length, about the size of an apple seed. However, their appearance can vary depending on several factors such as age, gender, and if they have fed recently.

Adult bed bugs have flat oval-shaped bodies with six legs and no wings. They have a segmented body with a distinct head and a visible abdomen. These insects also have prominent antennae that help them sense their surroundings.

One of the most distinguishing features of bed bugs is their piercing-sucking mouthparts, which they use to feed on blood. These mouthparts are thin and elongated, allowing them to pierce through human skin without being noticed.

The colour of bed bugs can also vary from light brown to dark red depending on when they last fed. After feeding on blood, their bodies become swollen and elongated, giving them a darker appearance.

However, newly hatched or young bed bugs (also known as nymphs) can be translucent or light yellow in colour until they have had a blood meal. As they grow and molt through five growth stages before reaching adulthood, their colour becomes darker.

Where to Look for Them

One of the first steps in addressing a potential bed bug infestation is figuring out where to look for these pesky insects. Bed bugs are small and can hide in tiny crevices, making them difficult to spot. However, there are some common areas that you should inspect if you suspect a bed bug problem.

  1. Your Mattress and Box Spring: This is likely the most obvious place to look for bed bugs since they are typically found in or near beds. Start by removing all bedding and thoroughly inspecting your mattress and box spring, paying close attention to the seams, folds, and tags. Look for any signs of live bugs or their shed skins, which will appear as small brown or reddish dots.
  2. Bedding and Furniture: Along with your mattress and box spring, it’s important to check all of your bedding for signs of bed bugs. This includes your sheets, pillows, comforters, and even decorative throw pillows. Additionally, any upholstered furniture such as couches or chairs should also be inspected carefully.
  3. Baseboards and Wall Trim: As sneaky little creatures, bed bugs love to hide in dark corners and crevices near beds. Check along baseboards and wall trim for any signs of bed bugs or their droppings which may appear as tiny black spots.
  4. Curtains and Rugs: Another area that often gets overlooked when searching for bed bugs is curtains or rugs near the affected areas. These items provide ample hiding places for bed


One of the first steps in dealing with a potential bed bug infestation is confirming the presence of these pests. If you have noticed some of the signs discussed in our previous section, it’s crucial to take immediate action to prevent the infestation from spreading. In this section, we will discuss different treatment options for eliminating bed bugs and preventing future infestations.

A trained professional is often the best option to properly identify and eliminate bed bug activity.


Bed bugs are a common problem, especially in urban areas and they can be difficult to detect and eliminate. However, knowing the signs of an infestation is crucial in order to protect yourself and your home. By keeping an eye out for these seven signs, you can stay one step ahead of bed bugs and take necessary actions to get rid of them. Remember, early detection is key in preventing a full-blown infestation. So stay informed and vigilant, and don’t hesitate to seek professional help when needed.

Reviewed By Matthew Sawyer

Matthew is the founder and business director of TruTech Pest & Wildlife Control. A Structural Exterminator with government licensure and training from Guelph University. As a dedicated member of both the Canadian Pest Management Association and the Structural Pest  Management Association of Ontario, he takes great pride in his profession.

Matthew’s extensive experience has made him a valuable and forward-thinking  member of the pest control community. He consistently strives to improve the  effectiveness and environmental impact of pest and wildlife control methods.

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